A print produced by the
same technique as an etching, except that the areas between the etched
lines are covered with a powdered resin that protects the surface from the
biting process of the acid bath. The granular appearance that results in the
print aims at approximating the effects and gray tonalities of a watercolor
An Artist's Proof is one
outside the regular edition, but printed at the same time or after the regular
edition from the same plates without changes. By custom, the artist retains the
A/Ps for his personal use or sale. Typically,10% of the edition total is
designated as A/P, or in the case of a small edition, five graphics are usually
French term for
Autograph Art Collectibles
Sport figures, Movie stars, etc. Kaufman was one of the
first to start this program, and it’s been a curse since, Kaufman got Ali to
sign his art of Ali, before this Kaufman worked for Saturday Night Live
(the TV show) and did originals of the cast and asked the cast to sign the art.
Trouble is the stars now have $ on their minds, and it’s just has gotten
crazy in price and it’s not about the quality of the art any more but it is a
part of the business for better or worse - it is what it is.
A group active in the
invention and application of new ideas and techniques in an original or
experimental way. A group of practitioners and/oradvocates of a new art form
may also be called avant-garde. Some avant-garde works are intended to
shock those who are accustomed totraditional, established styles.
Bon a Tirer
When the artist is
satisfied with the graphic from the finished plate, he works with his
printer to pull one perfect graphic and it is marked "Bon aTirer,"
meaning "good to pull." The printer then compares each graphic
in the edition with the BAT before submitting the graphic to the artist
forapproval and signature. There is generally one BAT and usually it becomes
the property of the printer or workshop printing the edition.
An alloy of copper and tin,
sometimes containing small proportions of other elements such as zinc or
phosphorus. It is stronger, harder, and more durable than brass, and has
been used most extensively since antiquity for cast sculpture. Bronze alloys
vary in color from a silvery hue to a rich, coppery red. U.S. standard bronze
is composed of 90% copper, 7% tin, and 3% zinc.
The art making of objects
of clay and firing them in a kiln. Wares of earthenware and porcelain, as well
as sculpture are made by ceramists.
Enamel is also a ceramic
technique. Ceramic materials may be decorated with slip, engobe, or glaze,
applied by a number of techniques, including resist, mishima, and sanggam. Pots
made be made by the coil, slab, or some other manual technique, or on a
Certificate of Authenticity
Certifies the authenticity
of an individual piece in an edition.
In drawing, painting, and
the graphic arts, chiaroscuro (ke-ära-skooro) refers to the rendering of forms
through a balanced contrast between light and dark areas. The technique
which was introduced during the Renaissance, is effective in creating an
illusion of depth and space around the principal figures in a composition. Leonardo
Da Vinci and Rembrandt were painters who excelled in the use of this technique.
Editions on paper Vs Canvas
Art gallery or publisher (larger companies that publish
artists in limited editions to selling to Art galleries). Art gallerys would in
the past 5 years, buy limited edition on paper and then sell the prints
with frames or without frames. But the customers started wanting art on canvas
because they felt this was real art and paper prints are not. Some publishers
will create an edition of paper and an edition on canvas. Canvas editions
always sell out first and are worth more.
The technique of
reproducing a design by coating a metal plate with wax and drawing with a sharp
instrument called a stylus through the wax down to the metal. The plate is put
in an acid bath, which eats away the incised lines; it is then heated to
dissolve the wax and finally inked andprinted on paper. The resulting print is
called the etching.
The diminishing of certain
dimensions of an object or figure in order to depict it in a correct spatial
relationship. In realistic depiction, foreshortening is necessary because
although lines and planes that are perpendicular to the observer's line of
vision (central visual ray), and the extremities of which are equidistant from
the eye, will be seen at their full size, when they are revolved away from the
observer they will seem increasingly shorter. Thus for example, a figure's arm
outstretched toward the observer must be foreshortened--the dimension of lines,
contours and angles adjusted--in order that it not appear hugely out of
proportion. The term foreshortening is applied to the depiction of a
single object, figure or part of an object or figure, whereas the term
perspective refers to the depiction of an entire scene.
A medium of opaque
watercolor applied to paper; also a work of art so produced. The usual gouache
painting displays a light-reflecting brilliance quite different from the
luminosity of transparent watercolors.
Just like the word - it is hand painting over the
print or the limited edition is 100% painted as Kaufman does, each edition art
is a lot of over paint or just painted the edition. Marilyn for example is 100%
handpainted no 2 faces in colors are ever the same but it’s a limited edition
or muilti original, both but at editions of 100 and up I’ll just call it a
Hors Commerce (Not for
Trade) traditionally were the graphics pulled with the regular edition, but were
marked by the artist for business use only.
These graphics were used
for entering exhibitions and competitions, but today, these graphics generally
are allowed into distribution through regular channels.
Paint applied in
outstanding heavy layers or strokes; also, any thickness or roughness of paint
or deep brush marks, as distinguished from a flat, smooth surface.
It’s just like the word said limited editions of a
painting or sculptures. The Artist # the limited edition art & sign next to
the #, for example # 1/100, 2/100, 3/100 etc. A triage or document is given
with each of the limited edition art.
In art, a public
declaration or exposition in print of the theories and directions of a
movement. The manifestos issued by various individual artists or groups of
artists, in the first half of the twentieth century served to reveal their
motivations and raisons d'etre and stimulated support for or reactions against
In sculpture, a small model
in wax or clay, made as a preliminary sketch, presented to a client for his
approval of the proposed work, or entered in a competition for a prize or
scholarship. The Italian equivalent of the term is bozzetto, meaning small
A picture made up of
various proportions of existing pictures, such as photographs or prints,
arranged so they join, overlap, or blend with one another.
A one-of-a-kind print made
by painting on a sheet or slab of glass and transferring the still-wet painting
to a sheet of paper held firmly on the glass by rubbing the back of the
paper with a smooth implement, such as a large hardwood spoon. The painting may
also be done on a polished plate, in which case it may be either printed
by hand or transferred to paper by running the plate and paper through an
Just like the name, it’s a muilt-more than one original
but this means the same image but different colors, Kaufman created this term,
true they sell for less than the 1 original but he was doing 10
muilti originals so when you add it all up the price was 5 times higher for the
10 muilti originals Vs the 1 original price.
A building, place or
institution devoted to the acquisition, conservation, study, exhibition and
educational interpretation of objects having scientific, historical or artistic
value. The word Museum is derived from the Latin muses, meaning "a source
of inspiration," or "to be absorbed in one's thoughts."
Oil Paint Vs Water Color paint
Oil paint like the old masters Van
Gogh or Picasso versus the current artist that use water
base paint. Oils are brighter colors and last far longer,
but it’s very hard to work with and there are very few artists in the world
using oil paints. Some artists are "mix media", which means oils
, watercolors to color pencil.
Refers to a piece that is just one of a kind, in
image, style. They are worth more money because there is only one,
there can be an original and a limited edition of the original which the
limited edition is always smaller in size than the original and cheaper in
price than the original.
A colored crayon that
consists of pigment mixed with just enough of a aqueous binder to hold it
together; a work of art produced by pastel crayons; the technique itself.
Pastels vary according to the volume of chalk contained...the deepest in tone
are pure pigment. Pastel is the simplest and purest method of painting, since
pure color is used without a fluid medium and the crayons are applied directly
to the pastel paper. Pastels are called paintings rather than drawings, for
although no paint is used, the colors are applied in masses rather
than in lines.
A film or an incrustation,
usually green, that forms on copper and bronze after a certain amount of
weathering and as a result of the oxidation of the copper. Special
chemical treatments will also induce different colored patinas on new
bronzes. Bronzes may be painted with acrylic and lacquer.
The representation of
three-dimensional objects on a flat surface so as to produce the same
impression of distance and relative size as that received by the human
eye. In one-point linear perspective, developed during the fifteenth century,
all parallel lines in a given visual field converge at a single vanishing point
on the horizon. In aerial or atmospheric perspective, the relative distance of
objects is indicated by gradations of tone and color and by variations in
the clarity of outlines.
A stencil and stencil-brush
process for making multicolored prints, and for tinting black-and-white prints,
and for coloring reproductions and book illustrations, especially fine and
limited editions. Pochoir, which is the French word for stencil, is
sometimes called hand-coloring or hand-illustration. Pochoir, as distinguished
from ordinary stencil work, is a highly refined technique, skillfully executed
in a specialized workshop.
A branch of French
Impressionism in which the principle of optical mixture or broken color was
carried to the extreme of applying color in tiny dots or small, isolated
strokes. Forms are visible in a pointillist painting only from a distance, when the viewer's
eye blends the colors to create visual masses and outlines. The inventor
and chief exponent of pointillism was George Seurat (1859-1891); the
other leading figure was Paul Signac (1863-1935).
A current practice of some
artists is the addition of a small personalized drawing or symbol near his pencil
signature in the lower margin. The practice is borrowed from Whistler's famous
"butterfly" which was added to personalize many of his graphics.
From the French verb
meaning to push back. A means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by
the use of illusionary devices such as the placement of a large figure or
object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of
depth in the rest of the picture.
Serigraphy is a color
stencil printing process in which a special paint is forced through a fine
screen onto the paper beneath. Areas which do not print are blocked with photo
sensitive emulsion that has been exposed with high intensity arc lights. A
squeegee is pulled from back to front, producing a direct transfer of the image
from screen to paper. A separate stencil is required for each color and one
hundred colors or more may be necessary to achieve the desired effect. A
serigraph, also referred to as a screen print, differs
from other graphics in that its color is made up of paint films rather than
printing ink stains. This technique is extremely versatile, and can create
effects similar to oil color, transparent washes as well as gouache and pastel.
Silk screening Vs Giclee
Giclee is the new way of printing, but there have
had some serious problems, but time will tell if the art industry is fighting
the new printing way. Problem is Giclee wasn’t honest when it first
entered the market it’s a large computer color printer that prints your
art on a fake canvas. The colors fade, very flat image, dull, doesn’t hold the
3d look the artist created.
In painting, to apply small
dots of color with the point of the brush; also to apply paint in a uniform
layer by tapping a vertically held brush on the surface in repeated staccato
Document that provides
background information on the graphic edition such as edition size,
printer, technique, year of execution.
A French term meaning
"deception of the eye." It is applied to painting so photographically
realistic that it may fool the viewer into thinking that the objects or scene
represented are real rather than painted.
Warhol Vs Kaufman
Warhol is Kaufman’s blue print in business: Until 2010, Kaufman was
the only living working artist that worked for Warhol. Warhol's in 1987
were selling for the same money as Kaufman is today, but when Andy
died the prices increased 1,000 to 10,000 times. For example, Marilyn
on canvas was $500 in the 60’s. After Warhol's death in 1987, the price for the
Marilyn went to $16 million dollars in 1999. Kaufman created a
Marilyn edition in 1995 and the price is 10 times its original price in only 8
years while Steve is still alive. Warhol and Kaufman both painted or silk
screened limited editions on canvas, Pop Art style, but Kaufman has 13
styles of his art. Comic book art, Pop art is similar to Warhol, but Kaufman did muilti
color and Kaufman hand painted his art so each work is an original. Kaufman added
3D images to his art, such as boxing gloves. Kaufman painted photo realism. He painted
like Van Gogh. He painted like Picasso, and he painted like Dali. But
Kaufman's subject images were from comics, cigars, old masters, mob art, icons --
from real guy art to women and little kids. There is always a story of how people
missed out in buying a Warhol when he was alive. You can be a doctor, or a
lawyer deceased, and you're just dead. But being an artist is the only career that
with death, your art takes on a new life as prices go sky high after death. Also,
the museum shows that you could never have in life -- but in death, you receive the high respect that your art is paid by fellow art dealers.
Used in watercolor
painting, brush drawing, and occasionally in oil painting to describe a broad
thin layer of diluted pigment or ink. Also refers to a drawing made in this